Beginning in the Second Temple Period, machloket, Talmudic disputes, arose – a fact clear from the study of any page of the Talmud. The existence of these disputes may present two possible pitfalls. First of all, in light of the seeming uncertainty, someone might question the accuracy of the Oral Torah’s transmission. Certainly, if the transmission were fully intact – so the argument goes – we would expect to find complete agreement on all subjects. This specific concern is addressed in The System of Halachah IV, presenting evidence for the accuracy of the transmission. The second concern, which is addressed here, is that the existence of disputes themselves may imply that the system of Jewish law is arbitrary. There are so many opinions on so many issues that it appears as if a person could choose any path he wishes and still call it Judaism. To counter this notion, this class will explore the origin of disputes within the Oral Torah, the nature of Talmudic debates, and under which circumstances we can say that both sides of a dispute are actually correct! Finally, we will understand the nature and legitimacy of conflicting rulings in contemporary halachah and how everyone finds their path.